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Country statistics and country information Estonia

AttributeDataYearintern. RankingData source
Area (sq km)45,2282015131
Coastline (km)3,794201730
Human Development Index
Human Development Index0.87201530
HDI rank302015159
GNI per capita rank minus HDI rank (2011 PPP $)12201156
HDI rank (2011 PPP $)312011158
Total population1,312,5602015152
Population in 20301,243,3302015158
Average annual growth (%) 2000/2005-0.632015188
Average annual growth (%) 2010/2015-0.302015182
Urban population (%) 201567.54201571
Population under age 572,0002015159
Population Age 15-64854,0002015152
Population age 65 and older246,0002015129
Median age (years)41.66201518
(per 100 people ages 15-64) Young age (0-14)24.692015148
(per 100 people ages 15-64) Old age (65 and older) 201528.79201513
Total fertility rate (births per woman) 2000/20051.392015162
Total fertility rate (births per woman) 2010/20151.592015151
Mother's mean age at first birth26.40201038
Contraceptive prevalence rate (%)63.40200557
Birth registration (% under age 5) 2010-2015100.00201518
Life expectancy at birth (years)77.01201547
Child malnutrition Stunting (moderate or severe) 2010-2015---2015
Mortality rates Infant 2015 per 10002.302015185
Mortality rates Under-five per 10002.902015183
Life expectancy at age 60 2010/201521.34201554
Maternal mortality ratio (deaths per 100,000 live births)92015151
Physicians 2001-2014 per 1.000032.42201435
Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)5.30201034
Deaths due to Malaria 2012 per 100.000---2012
Deaths due to Tuberculosis per 100.0002.102014116
Deaths due to HIV prevalence, adult 2015 per 100.000---2015
Infants lacking immunization DTP 20145.00201470
Infants lacking immunization Measles 20147.00201496
Public health expenditure 2014 % of GDB5.03201455
Depth of food deficit (kilocalories per person per day) (%) 2013/2015---2015
Expected years of schooling (years)16.50201520
Mean years of schooling (years)12.55201511
Literacy rate Adult (% ages 15 and older) 2005-201599.8320153
Literacy rate Youth (% ages 15-24) Female 2005-201599.9720155
Literacy rate Youth (% ages 15-24) Male 2005-201599.9620157
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary school (number of pupils per teacher) 2010-20111.502014148
Government expenditure on education (% of GDP) 2010-20144.69201471
Population with at least some secondary education (% ages 25 and older) 200100.0020153
Gross enrolment ratio Pre-primary (% of preschool-age children) 2010-201588.37201550
Gross enrolment ratio Primary (% of primary school-age population) 2010-201100.702015120
Gross enrolment ratio Secondary (% of secondary school-age population) 2010108.58201525
Gross enrolment ratio Tertiary (% of tertiary school-age population) 2010-272.92201523
Gross enrolment ratio Primary school dropout rate (% of primary school coho3.422015116
Primary school teachers trained to teach (%) 2005-2015---2015
Gross national income (GNI) per capita (2011 PPP $)26,361.90201542
GDP - per capita (PPP)22,400.00201364
GDP - per capita (PPP)26,929.70201140
GDP (purchasing power parity, $)29,940,000,000.002013113
GDP (purchasing power parity, $)35.332011109
GDP - real growth rate (%)1.502013160
Exports in US-Dollar15,110,000,000.00201378
Imports in US-Dollar16,380,000,000.00201384
External Debt in US-Dollar26,740,000,000.00201375
External debt stock (% of GNI) 2005-2014---2013
Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)3.402013101
Industrial production growth rate (%)3.00201397
Current account balance0.00201393
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold372,300,000.002013150
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home21,730,000,000.00201369
Market value of publicly traded shares1,611,000,000.002011141
Budget surplus/deficit (% of GDP)-0.50201357
Total tax revenue (% of GDP) 2005-20141.032014136
Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP) 2005-201410.392014121
Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) 2005-20141.44201424
Domestic credit provided by financial sector (% of GDP) 2010-201576.52201558
Total debt service (% of GNI) 2014---2014
Labor force692,9002013151
Employment to population ratio 201558.25201594
Labour force participation rate 201561.922015105
Employment in agriculture 2010-20143.90201496
Employment in services 2010-201465.50201453
Unemployment Total 20155.932015108
Unemployment Youth 201511.342015123
Youth not in school or employment 2010-201411.66201472
Vulnerable employment 2005-20145.702014123
Child labour 2009-2015 (% ages 5-14)---2015
Working poor at PPP$3.10 a day 2004-2013---2013
Mandatory paid maternity leave 2015 (days)140201519
Old-age pension recipients 2004-2013 (% of statutory pension age population98.00201332
Income quintile ratio Average annual change (%) 2000/2014-0.62201547
Roadways (km)58,412.00201073
Railways (km)1,196200885
Waterways (km)335.00201526
Military expenditures (% of GDP)2.00201339
Irrigated land (sq km)4.582008168
Telephones - main lines in use448,200201299
Telephones - mobile cellular2,070,0002012144
Internet users971,7002009101
Nature and Environment
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (tonnes)15.11201313
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)20,260,000201184
Carbon dioxide emissions - Average annual change (%) 1990/2013---2015
Total renewable water resources (cu km)12.812011130
Fresh water withdrawals (% of total renewable water resources) 2005-201413.43201549
Natural resource depletion (% of GNI) 2010-20140.852014121
Forest area (% of total land area)52.65201539
Forest area change (%) 1990-20151.18201572
Electricity - production (kWh)12,190,000,000201190
Electricity - consumption (kWh)7,948,000,000201095
Electricity - imports (kWh)2,710,000,000201248
Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)2,751,000201091
Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)93.40201070
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)0.202010148
Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)0.002010133
Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)6.40201038
Industry and Production
Crude oil - production (bbl/day)11,000201286
Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)7,624201060
Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)02010230
Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)02010125
Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)02011187
Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)26,3402011167
Natural gas - production (cu m)02011123
Natural gas - consumption (cu m)701,000,0002010144
Natural gas - exports (cu m)0201192
Natural gas - imports (cu m)670,000,000201164
Natural gas proved reserves (cu m)02013131
Consumer price index (2010=100) 2015111.482015106
Domestic food price level (USA = 1.0) 2010-20142.762014104
Domestic food price level Volatility index 2010-20147.40201463
Human security
Refugees by country of origin3182015121
Internally displaced persons---2015
Homeless people due to natural disaster (average annual per million people)0.002015128
Orphaned children---2014
Prison population (per 100,000 people) 2004-2015216201548
Homicide rate (per 100,000 people) 2010-20143.102014111
Suicide rate (per 100,000 people) Female 20123.80201298
Suicide rate (per 100,000 people) Male 201225201224
Violence against women ever experienced Intimate partner (%) 2005-201520.00201571
Violence against women ever experienced Nonintimate partner (%) 2005-20159.00201512
Safety Index (Numbeo)77.62201711
Human securiy
Crime Index (Numbeo)22.382017100
Gender gap
Sex ratio at birth (male to female births)1.06201538
Adolescent birth rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)13.052015144
Pre-primary (% of pre-school age female population)87.15201552
Primary (% of primary school-age female population)100.412015112
Secondary (% of secondary school age female population)108.12201523
Youth unemployment rate (female to male ratio)0.952015147
Population with at least some secondary education (female to male ratio) 2005-20151.00201548
Total unempoyment rate (female to male ratio)0.972015137
Share of paid employment in non-agriculture, female (% of total paid employment in non-agriculture)50.9020159
Female legislators, senior officials and managers (% of total)36.25201436
Share of seats in parliament (% held by women)23.76201568
Life expectancy at age 50, female (years)32.73201538
Old-age pension recipients (female to male ratio) 2006-20131201332
Gender Inequality Index - Average annual change (%) 2005/2015-4.642015129
Poverty and Inequality
Population in multidimensional poverty - Average annual change (%) 2005/2014---2014
Coefficient of human inequality8.622015130
Inequality in life expectancy (%) 201020154.802015153
Inequality in education (%)2.332015153
Inequality in income (%)18.72201598
Income inequality Quintile ratio 2010-20155.69201594
Income inequality Palma ratio 2010-20151.262015106
Income inequality Gini coefficient (UN) 2010-201533.152015103
Distribution of family income - Gini index (CIA)31.302010111
GINI index (World Bank)33.42201684
Income share held by highest (richest) 10% (Average 2010-2016)25.42201796
Income share held by highest (richest) 20% (Average 2010-2016)41.04201789
Income share held by lowest (poorest) 10% (Average 2010-2016)2.50201776
Income share held by lowest (poorest) 20% (Average 2010-2016)7.12201762
Income share held by third 20% (Average 2010-2016)16.42201749
Number of poor at $1,90 a day in PPP0.00201199
Number of poor at $3,20 a day in PPP0.002011115
Number of poor at $5,50 a day in PPP40,000.002011117
Social values
Old-age ages 65 and older dependency ratio (per 100 people ages 15-64) 203037.90201518
Languages and ethnic groups
Ethnic Fractionalization Index (Fearon)0.51201674
Cultural Diversity Index (Fearon)0.49201639
Ethnic Fractionalization (Alesina)0.51200383
Linguistic Fractionalization (Alesina)0.49200376
Religious Fractionalization (Alesina)0.50200394

Religious Fractionalization (Alesina)

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